The humanistic and existential theories of psychology are often confused. In this lesson, we’ll look at the similarities of and differences between the two theories and their related therapies.
Humanistic ; Existential Theories
Amelia has a problem. She can’t make any decisions.
She has a great fiancé who loves her very much, but she’s so terrified that she’s making the wrong choice that she keeps fantasizing about running off and leaving him at the altar. She loves him, but her fear is holding her back.On the surface, everything looks good for Amelia: she’s in love with someone who loves her back, and they’re engaged to be married. She’s young and has her whole life in front of her.
So what’s causing Amelia’s fears? And more importantly, how can she get past them to live a happy life?There are many approaches to abnormal psychology and many ways to view Amelia’s problem. Some people might say that Amelia has a chemical imbalance in her brain that’s causing her anxiety. Some would say that she has a problem with her subconscious.Two theories that are often confused in psychology are humanistic and existential theories of psychology. The humanistic theory of psychology says that humans are constantly striving to become the best version of themselves that they can be.
The existential theory of psychology says that humans are searching for the meaning of life. Let’s look closer at the similarities and differences in the humanistic and existential theories and treatments in psychology.
As we mentioned, humanistic psychology says that people strive to be the best versions of themselves, while existential psychology says that people are searching for the meaning of life.
They are very similar, though, in the way that people achieve those ends – through personal responsibility and free will. Essentially, both humanistic and existential psychologists value the ability of humans to make their own choices and lead their own lives.So imagine that you’re a psychologist and Amelia comes to see you. She’s scared and feeling very anxious, even though she’s deeply in love with her fianc;. Whether you are a humanistic or existential psychologist, you’re likely to work hard to help Amelia see that she’s got the opportunity to make her own decisions and follow her own path.
Maybe that means that Amelia decides to leave her fianc;. Or maybe it means that she’s able to walk down the aisle calmly, knowing that she’s making a choice and not just being swept away by the current of her life.A large part of therapy for both existential and humanistic psychologists involves looking at the individual experiences and views of the patient. From the outside, Amelia looks like she has it all: she’s young, she’s healthy, and she and her fianc; are very much in love.But Amelia herself is feeling scared and anxious and isn’t sure whether she wants to marry her fiancé or not. At the end of the day, what matters is Amelia’s perspective, not anyone else’s.
As such, humanistic and existential psychologists place a very high importance on the individual’s experiences and subjective view.One final similarity between the existential and humanistic theories is that they both stress the positive sides of human nature. Many theories of psychology focus on what’s lacking in the individual: this person has a chemical imbalance, which means he lacks some element in his brain; that person is guided by unresolved issues in her subconscious.But existential and humanistic psychology views people as whole and complete. It does not look at Amelia, for example, and say that her problems are because she’s a weak, incomplete person. Instead, they look at Amelia as a person with great positive potential, and therapy is meant to help her realize that potential.
Despite the similarities, though, there are some key differences in humanistic and existential psychology. The biggest difference lies in the underlying view of human nature. The humanistic theory of psychology assumes that people are good and that society causes them to do bad or evil things. For example, humanistic psychology sees Amelia as a good person without any evil in her. But because of the pressures of society, perhaps Amelia has an affair with a man other than her fianc;. It’s not that she’s evil; it’s that society has acted on her, and she reacted.
On the other hand, the existential view of humanity says that people have the inherent capability for both good and evil within them. In other words, they are both good and evil, and the choices they make are what define them. So to an existential psychologist, Amelia is both good and evil, and the bad choice she made to have an affair with another man is a reflection of that bad side of her coming out.As we mentioned, one similarity is that both humanistic and existential psychology look at the positive potential of humans.
But how humans attempt to reach that potential is another difference in the two theories. In humanistic psychology, humans have a hierarchy of needs; that is, there are certain things that everyone needs and certain needs that must be met before others can be pursued. For example, if Amelia isn’t getting enough to eat and she’s homeless, she’s probably not going to be striving to seek out adventure. She’s too busy trying to survive.But if her basic needs are met, Amelia might begin to look beyond those needs to other, higher needs. Perhaps she feels like she can’t marry her fianc; because she will lose her autonomy or creativity.
Those needs (autonomy and creativity) are higher than her basic needs for survival and can only be pursued when Amelia’s physical survival is assured.On the other hand, existential psychologists believe that everyone has motivations, called daimons, and we pair those daimons with wishes. We make decisions on how to act based on our daimons and wishes, so that our life is constructed of how we use free will to fulfill wishes.In that context, Amelia might be running from her wedding because she has a wish that she wants to fulfill. Maybe she dreams of running off to exotic places and finding adventure.
Those wishes, along with her daimons, are drawing her away from her wedding. She is feeling anxious because she’s ignoring them, but when she exercises her free will to pursue her dreams, she’ll be happy.
The humanistic theory of psychology says that people are constantly striving to be the best version of themselves that they can be. The existential theory of psychology says that people are searching for the meaning of life.
They are similar in that they both stress free will, look at the individual view of the person, and see the positive potential of humans.There are some differences, though, including the fact that humanistic psychology sees people as good and society as evil, whereas existential psychology sees people as both good and evil. Further, humanistic psychology stresses a hierarchy of needs, while existential psychology looks at the way we use our free will to pursue our dreams.
When this lesson is done, you should be able to discuss the similarities and differences between the humanistic and existential theories.