A fat embolism is a glob of fat that gets into the bloodstream.
It is problematic when the glob is too large to pass through a blood vessel, causing it to get stuck. Read this lesson to learn how this happens and what to do if it does.
What is a Fat Embolism?
Let’s back up and start with the basics. First off, an embolus is an intravascular mass that gets stuck when traveling through the bloodstream and causes a blockage. A fat embolism is an embolus made up of fatty acids. So basically, it’s a glob of fat that gets into the bloodstream and lodged in a blood vessel.
This condition is hard to diagnose and is common following a major injury or trauma. Let’s look at what causes a fat embolism with a little more detail.
Causes of Fat Embolisms
The most common cause of a fat embolism is a broken long bone, like the femur. Why? Well, when a bone breaks, fat from the bone marrow can seep out into the bloodstream. In fact, most broken bones cause some fat to enter the blood stream, but not all of this fat causes a blockage; closed fractures (the bone doesn’t break through the skin) cause more embolisms than open fractures.
Other causes include major surgery (like hip and knee replacements), pancreatitis, burns, child birth, bone marrow biopsies, soft tissue damage, and non-traumatic procedures or conditions like liposuction, fatty liver, or sickle cell disease. Anything that introduces fat into the bloodstream can result in a fat embolism if the fat reaches a blood vessel it can’t fit through.
Symptoms of Fat Embolisms
The time frame for an embolism is anywhere from 12-72 hours after the trauma, and the symptoms vary based on where the blockage occurs.
The most problematic embolisms occur in the brain, lungs, or skin, and fat embolisms are fatal approximately 10-20% of the time.Possible symptoms can occur throughout the body, and sometimes, fat embolisms are difficult to diagnose. Typically, either two of three major symptoms must be present or one major symptom and at least four minor symptoms.These major symptoms include:
- Lung impairment
- Cerebral (brain) impairment
- Petechial rash (red spots on the skin that don’t turn white when pressed)
Minor symptoms include:
- Rapid breathing
- Trouble breathing
- Low oxygen concentration in blood
- Kidney problems
- Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)
There is no specific treatment available to cure fat embolisms, so the symptoms must be managed. These include providing oxygen to maintain dissolved oxygen concentration, providing blood components like red blood cells or platelets, as needed, proper hydration and diet, and sometimes, mechanical ventilation. Properly setting a broken bone as soon as possible will greatly diminish the likelihood of a fat embolism forming. In severe cases, small filters may be inserted into the vena cava to prevent fat from reaching the heart.
Sometimes, corticosteroids are administered but their use is still controversial.
So, what have we learned about fat embolisms? Well, they’re fat globules that end up in the blood stream and eventually get stuck in a vessel, causing a blockage. They most often occur after a broken bone and symptoms develop within 12-72 hours after injury (or trauma). Other causes may be major surgeries or trauma to the body. Symptoms vary based on the location of the embolism, and there is no way to cure the condition; rather, the symptoms are treated.Medical Disclaimer: The information on this site is for your information only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice.