Different ways to detect deception has been used by a variety of cultures throughout human history. This lesson explains how lie detectors work and explores the accuracy of lie detector results.
Individuals undergoing a lie detector test have been seen in a variety of films and in television shows. You will often see someone who is hooked up to a machine with jagged lines printing on paper. What exactly are these lines and how do they determine if someone is telling the truth? In this lesson, we’ll define the term lie detector, explain how lie detectors work, and evaluate the accuracy of their results.
What Is a Lie Detector Test?
A lie detector test is also known as a polygraph test.
The purpose of a polygraph test is to investigate deception in an individual. In other words, it’s designed to determine whether or not a person is lying. The polygraph is an instrument that records an individual’s physiological response to a series of structured questions.
Examiners review the changes in a person’s physiological response to questions in order to make a determination as to whether or not an individual is telling the truth. Polygraph tests are used for three main reasons: investigations that are event specific (such as in a crime investigation), employee screenings, or pre-employment screenings.
How Does It Work?
The polygraph is an instrument that has sensors that are attached to the individual who is taking the test.
These sensors range in number from four to six, depending on the type of machine. The sensors typically record a person’s breathing rate, pulse (heart rate), blood pressure, and perspiration. The measurement of these areas is called physiological responses. Breathing rate is typically measured by a pneumograph, a coil wrapped around a person’s chest that measures frequency and intensity of a person’s respiration. Heart rate and blood pressure is measured by the use of a blood pressure cuff. In order to measure perspiration, or electrodermal response, electrodes are connected to a person’s fingers. These electrodes can be disposable or small metal plates.
Originally, the data that was collected during a polygraph test was recorded using analog instruments. The data would print out on a moving sheet of paper with several pens moving to report the data. Due to this process, the record of an individual’s responses during the actual polygraph test is called a polygraph chart. Most of the polygraph tests today use computerized recording systems to collect the data.A polygraph examination has different phases. The first phase is a pretest phase. During this time, paperwork to administer the test is completed.
The examiner also explains the polygraph test process and answers any questions the individual taking the test may have. The questions that will be used for the actual exam are also reviewed during this phase to ensure understanding of the actual questions.The next phase is referred to as the chart collection phase. During the chart collection phase, the examiner administers questions and collects a number of polygraph charts.
The number of questions asked and charts collected varies by case.The final phase is the data analysis phase. During this phase, the information collected through questioning is reviewed and analyzed. The examiner at this point makes a decision as to whether or not deception was present. At this time, the examiner will give the individual being tested an opportunity to explain their responses to some of the questions when needed.
According to the American Psychological Association, the validity of polygraph testing is still debatable. Polygraph testing is considered very controversial.
One of the main underlying theoretical issues is that a specific pattern of physical reactions has not been shown to be unique to deception only. However, the American Polygraph Association claims that the polygraph test is highly accurate.There are however mistakes that can happen. These are typically referred to as false positives and false negatives. A false positive is when a truthful individual is reported to be deceptive. A false negative is when an individual who is being deceptive is reported as being truthful.
Due to this, there are specific procedures used to identify factors which may cause errors. These are called protective procedures. Some examples of protective procedures include:
- Evaluation of the emotional state of the individual taking the polygraph test
- Review of the individual’s medical information to determine the physical condition
- Administration of technical questions to determine an individual’s ability to respond
- Review of case information
- Pretest interview
- Review of quality controls.
Who Uses a Polygraph Test
Although there is much controversy regarding the results of a polygraph test, they are still in use today. Law enforcement agencies, the legal community, government agencies, and the private sector still use polygraph testing. Law enforcement agencies include federal, state, and local agencies. The legal community includes defense attorneys and parole and probation departments. In order to obtain certain positions within the government, a polygraph test is required when applying. Private citizens and companies also use polygraph testing. Today, however, most private employers do not use polygraph tests as a screening method for applicants.
This is in part to The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 being passed.
Lie detector or polygraph tests have been used and continue to be used to determine deception. Polygraph tests determine deception by monitoring and reviewing physiological changes in a person’s vital signs. Although this type of testing has been shown to be controversial and not always reliable, polygraph testing continues to be used for a variety of reasons today.