After locate them on a map. A

After watching this video, you will be able to explain what the early river civilizations were, give some examples, and locate them on a map. A short quiz will follow.

What Were the Early River Civilizations?

Once upon a time, humans were hunter-gatherers. They moved around as nomads season by season, year by year, hunting animals and gathering fruit and nuts from plants.

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About 12,000 years ago, humans changed their ways. They started to settle in single locations. People debate the reason for that.

Perhaps they realized they could produce a food surplus. Perhaps it started with mere experimentation. But whatever caused it, it was a huge change in the way humans lived.Whatever the reason, humans had to answer an important question: where should they settle? To answer that question, we have to think about what they were settling down to do.

Twelve thousand years ago, humans started to form what’s called an agrarian society. An agrarian society is a society where cultivating the land is the primary source of wealth, where the focus is on agriculture and farming.Agriculture and farming needs water and lots of it. They also need fertile soil.

So humans invariably settled along the flood plains of rivers. This shouldn’t be at all surprising because through the regular flooding that happens there, these soils were full of nutrients and there was water aplenty.Examples of early river-valley civilizations include the Indus Valley Civilization, Ancient Egypt (the Nile), Mesopotamia (along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers), and Chinese civilization along the Yellow River. In today’s lesson, we’re going to talk about a few of these early river valley civilizations and place them on the world map.

Locations: Indus River

The Indus River was the home to an extremely successful civilization.

It would flood the land with nutrients twice per year, super reliably. Because of this regular flooding, the Indus Valley contained the most available calories per acre of any river of its time. Things grew easily, and the civilization flourished around 3000 BCE.

They were a peaceful people with many architectural achievements.But where was the Indus Valley civilization? Where is the Indus River? The Indus River’s source is in the Himalayan mountain range on the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Mansarovar. It runs through modern-day Pakistan, Western Tibet, and Kashmir. It reaches the sea in Pakistan.

Nile River

Ancient Egypt is probably the most famous river valley civilization in human history, thanks to all the pyramids. It lasted from around 3000 BCE to 300 BCE, which makes it the longest-existing out of all the river civilizations. The Nile River flooded in a regular pattern, and life in Egypt was predictable and easy.

Farming was much easier than in most places.The Nile is the longest river in the world, running from North Egypt down to Lake Victoria in Tanzania. It flows through 11 modern-day countries, from north to south: Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Congo-Kinshasa, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania.

Locations: Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers formed the location for the Mesopotamian civilization.

Their rivers flooded in extremely unpredictable patterns, which made irrigation complex and difficult. To make it more manageable, Mesopotamia used slaves and gave offerings to appease the gods.The Tigris River flows from the mountains of what is now Southeastern Turkey and finishes in Iraq, flowing into the Persian Gulf. The Euphrates is similar; its source is in Eastern Turkey, and it eventually combines with the Tigris before they flow together into the Persian Gulf.

Locations: Yellow River

The ‘cradle’ of Chinese civilization was how the Yellow River was often described.

Its banks were historically extremely prosperous and the home of the ancient Chinese civilization. This civilization was war-torn, separated into dynasties of varying lengths, usually with wars in between. The various factions fought for dominance. But this fighting was only possible due to the fertile land surrounding the Yellow River.The Yellow River runs from its source in the Bayan Har Mountains in western China, eventually flowing into the Bohai Sea in Shandong province.

Lesson Summary

About 12,000 years ago, humans changed their hunter-gatherer ways. They started to form what’s called an agrarian society.

An agrarian society is a society where cultivating the land is the primary source of wealth, where the focus is on agriculture and farming. Agriculture and farming needs water and lots of it. They also need fertile soil. So, humans invariably settled along the flood plains of rivers.

Examples of early river valley civilizations include the Indus Valley Civilization, Ancient Egypt (on the Nile), Mesopotamia (along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers), and Chinese civilization along the Yellow River.The Indus River’s source is in the Himalayan mountain range on the Tibetan Plateau near Lake Mansarovar. It runs through modern-day Pakistan, Western Tibet, and Kashmir. It reaches the sea in Pakistan.The Nile is the longest river in the world, running from North Egypt down to Lake Victoria in Tanzania.

It flows through 11 modern-day countries, from north to south: Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Congo-Kinshasa, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, and Tanzania.The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers flow from the mountains of what is now Eastern Turkey, before combining together and finishing in Iraq, flowing into the Persian Gulf. The Yellow River runs from its source in the Bayan Har Mountains in western China, eventually flowing into the Bohai Sea in Shandong province.These rivers led to some of the earliest and most important civilizations in human history.

Learning Outcomes

By the time you are finished with this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Explain why early civilizations settled near major rivers
  • Name and describe some of the major early river valley civilizations
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