This Pantheon, Greek or Roman Pantheon, Egyptian

This lesson offers a brief look into the definition, origin, and modern views of polytheistic beliefs.

How have they evolved? Are there currently any still in existence? Read on to find out, and then take a quiz.

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What do Odin, Zeus, Ra, Vishnu, and Matres have in common? Each belongs to a group of deities, with worshipers paying homage to multiple deities of varying power. These figures are part of polytheism, or the belief in and worship of many gods. The roots of this word are poly- (‘many’) and -theism (‘gods’).Typically in polytheism, a particular deity is called upon for a specific event, a specific need, or the god’s relationship with an area (grape fields, volcanoes, war) or families. Gods would be organized in a Pantheon, or a collection of all of the gods of a group of people. Some examples would be the Norse Pantheon, Greek or Roman Pantheon, Egyptian Pantheon, etc.

However, you have to be careful with the Roman Pantheon because it was also a building.Ancient polytheistic religions are often referred to as mythology, a term that reduces them from the religions that they once were. For example, the Greek Mythology of Zeus, Hera, Athena, Ares and others was once a religion, with priests and priestesses, prophets and followers. But now it has been relegated to fantasy stories of the past.

Today, polytheism is noted for being part of Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shintoism, as well as contemporary tribal religions in Africa and the Americas. Many of these remain within cultures that have resisted attempts at religious conversion to a monotheistic religion, or have found ways of having the two remain side by side. For example, it is not uncommon in many parts of the world to have several religious buildings near each other.


It has been hypothesized that along with the Proto-Indo-European language a natural form of religion formed as well. This primitive religion focused on deified versions of natural events and things.

Some of the basics include the Sky Father, the Earth Mother, the World Tree, the Trickster, and other basic concepts.

Which Sky Deity is this?

As time passed, the religion took on new complexities. Basic characters took on new features and aspects. For example, the basic Sky Father would become more supernatural, as seen in the Egyptian sun god with the falcon head and the solar disk Ra, or more human with the Norse Sky Father Odin.

Examples of Incorporation

What happens when a group of people who worship pantheon A comes into contact with a group of people who worship pantheon B? One option is that the groups worshiping different pantheons will go to war and attempt to eradicate the other side.

But that takes a lot of work. You have to kill a lot of people and destroy a lot of useful stuff (pottery, art, stone statues, and more) just to erase the opponents’ gods.Another option is to incorporate the other gods into your own pantheon. Sky God in pantheon A gains the last name of the Sky God in Pantheon B. Pantheon B’s war god gains a lieutenant from pantheon A.

This type of incorporation is found most often with the Roman Empire prior to it becoming monotheistic. They would conquer a new area and instead of attempting to force the followers to adhere to their religious ideas and beliefs, they would add and incorporate their own.If you are familiar at all with the Roman and Greek gods, you know that they are basically interchangeable. Jupiter is basically Zeus, Mars is basically Ares, and so on.

This is because the Roman Empire conquered Greece and was so interested in their culture they adopted their architecture, their teachings, and their gods.

This image and the Sky Father above both depict Zeus, or Jupiter

Another example would be when Rome conquered Egypt and Asia Minor and began incorporating their ideas. Again we see the architecture borrowed (and sometimes stolen) along with the gods. Several secret cults would arise following either Isis from Egypt or Cybele from Asia Minor.

The decline of polytheism is a result of incompatible beliefs. With the rise of monotheism in the several powerful empires in the world, the worshiping of another god was seen as heretical and blasphemous. This would eventually lead to the polytheistic religion passing into story in many parts of the world.

Lesson Summary

Polytheism is the belief and worship of multiple gods. The groups are often organized into pantheons based on who worshiped them.

Polytheism most likely began as a grouping of primitive beliefs that evolved as humans continued to worship them; this is why so many prototypical polytheistic religions have similar ideas (such as Sky Father and Earth Mother). Polytheism often incorporated new ideas and gods into their beliefs, allowing for multiple gods to exist simultaneously. The end of polytheistic beliefs was due to the rise and power of the monotheistic beliefs.


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