Radio waves are used in almost all forms of wireless communication, and you certainly utilize them every day! In this lesson, learn more about how radio waves are produced, and then learn about the different types of radio waves and how they are used.
What Is a Radio Wave?
When you get in your car, you probably expect to be able to listen to the radio, right? There are many stations that you can tune your receiver to, and each one picks up different radio signals. Radio waves have been an important part of our lives for many years, providing entertainment and communication capabilities for millions of people throughout the world, and even a few out in space! How does this all work? What are radio waves, and how are they generated, transmitted, and received?Radio waves are electromagnetic waves, which means that they are made up of an oscillating pattern of electric and magnetic fields that travels through space.
Radio waves are certainly not the only type of electromagnetic wave, however. Light, microwaves, gamma rays, and many others are also electromagnetic waves, and together, they make up what we call the electromagnetic spectrum.Even though light and radio waves may appear different to us, all electromagnetic waves are actually quite similar.
The difference between a light wave and a radio wave is that these two waves have different wavelengths and frequencies. The frequency of a wave is how many times it repeats in a certain time interval (usually one second), and wave frequency is usually measured in units of Hertz (Hz). One Hertz corresponds to one wave cycle every second.Light waves fall towards the middle of the spectrum, while radio waves are electromagnetic waves that have the much lower frequencies. Radio waves have frequencies that range from 3 kHz up to 300 GHz, while the frequency of visible light ranges from 400,000 to 700,000 GHz.Just like all electromagnetic waves, radio waves can travel long distances through all kinds of media, or even through empty space. They also travel really fast, moving at the speed of light.
Because of this, radio waves are critically important for all kinds of communication technologies, and not just important for keeping you entertained on a long drive in your car. Radio waves are used for everything from transmitting music and videos to communicating with astronauts in outer space.
How Are Radio Waves Generated?
Radio waves exist in nature all around us, although we didn’t know they were there until they were first detected by Heinrich Hertz in the late 1800s. Any time there is a fluctuation in an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic waves are generated, and many times these are radio waves.Electrical appliances generate radio waves all the time, and so does lightning. Even planets and stars are constantly sending out radio waves. Scientists measure these to learn more about distant celestial objects.
This is an area of science called radio astronomy.Although radio waves are produced naturally, we can also produce radio waves with very specific frequencies and use them to transmit information. Radio waves are generated by turning a signal, like the sound of a voice, into a series of radio wave pulses. These waves travel through the air until they hit a receiver, which decodes the wave pulses and turns it back into sound.
Uses of Radio Waves
Radio waves are used to transmit all kinds of information, and different types of information are transmitted at different frequencies. The lowest frequency radio waves are called very low frequency (VLF) and these are mainly used for communication between submarines underwater. Low frequency (LF) waves have frequencies ranging from 30 to 300 kHz, and medium frequency (MF) waves have frequencies that range from 300 to 3000 kHz. Both LF and MF radio waves are used to transmit AM radio signals.With frequencies ranging from 3 to 30 MHz, high frequency (HF) radio waves are used for AM radio and long distance communications between aircraft. Very high frequency (VHF) and ultra high frequency (UHF) radio waves have frequencies ranging from 30 to 300 MHz and 300 to 3000 MHz, respectively. VHF waves are used for FM radio, television broadcasting, short-range communication between aircraft and air to ground communication, and weather radio.
UHF waves are also used for television broadcasting, as well as in mobile phones, wireless networks, Bluetooth device communication, satellite radio, and global positioning systems. These are the most widely used type of radio waves. If you are using a wireless network or cell phone right now to see this lesson, then you are using UHF waves at this very minute.Super high frequency (SHF) waves, with frequencies from 3 to 30 GHz, are used to transmit satellite television, radio, and other forms of satellite communications, as well as in radio astronomy and radar systems like those used by the police to catch you speeding.
Radio waves at the high end of the frequency spectrum are called extremely high frequency (EHF) waves. EHF waves are also commonly detected in radio astronomy, and they are also used in the full body scanners that you may have seen in airports.
To recap, radio waves are electromagnetic waves, which means that they are made up of an oscillating pattern of electric and magnetic fields that travels through space.
Light waves, microwaves, gamma rays, and many others are also electromagnetic waves, and together, they make up what we call the electromagnetic spectrum. The frequency of a wave is how many times it repeats in a certain time interval, and wave frequency is usually measured in units of Hertz, and radio waves have frequencies that range from 3 kHz up to 300 GHz.Radio waves are categorized according to their frequency, as shown here: