This lesson explores social intelligence and how it may or may not relate to personality. Specific topics include a definition, aspects of social intelligence, and theoretical views on what social intelligence is and how it works.
Have you ever felt extremely awkward in a situation, not knowing the right thing to say or how to interact with a group of people? Maybe you accidentally did or said the wrong thing.
Not only can this be an embarrassing situation, it shows a moment where your social intelligence failed you. People have many different abilities regarding social intelligence, from the ”life of the party” to the ”tactless boor” or even the ”wall flower,” but what is social intelligence really?
Social Intelligence Defined
Social intelligence is a person’s ability to interact well with others, often called people skills or tact. It is a learned ability involving situational awareness, understanding of social dynamics, and a decent amount of self-awareness. There are four contributing aspects of social intelligence defined by researchers:
1. Communication Skills
These involve the ability of a person to listen well, understand the words and emotional content of what they hear, speak well with others, express their thoughts and emotions clearly, and use tact when speaking with others.
3. Understanding the Motivation of Others
This involves reading the subtext of a conversation and understanding why a person is saying something or behaving in such a manner. Imagine a person with tears streaming down their face, yet they tell you that everything is fine.
While this is an easy situation to read, high social intelligence can help decipher even the most subtle situations.
4. Impression Management
This skill involves understanding the reaction of others to you and behaving in a way to make the impression you want. Do you go into a job interview dressed well and acting confident and professional, or do you wear jean shorts and sweat profusely with nervousness?
Social Intelligence and Personality
Theorists disagree on the role social intelligence plays in personality. Some strictly define it as just one form of intelligence, which was outline by Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, which has been simplified to Karl Albrecht’s six dimensions of intelligence, known as A.S.
K, where each letter stands for a particular kind of intelligence, including:
- Abstract, or logical reasoning, mathematics, and symbolic information processing
- Social, or interaction with others
- Practical, or problem solving for real-life situations
- Emotional, or self-awareness and ability to control one’s emotional and behavioral reactions
- Aesthetic, or an understanding of relationships between objects, design skills, and comprehension of form
- Kinesthetic intelligence, or awareness and skill in moving the body or controlling objects through space
However, other theorists see social interaction as a manifestation of an individual’s personality because it employs many cognitive processes integral to personality formation, such as perception, memory, and problem-solving skills. Those ascribing to the cognitive view of personality, the belief that personality is composed of perception, memory, and problem-solving cognitive systems, tend to explain differences in personality as different sets of knowledge and skill seen most clearly when people interact with one another.George Kelly, another leading researcher in social intelligence and personality, claimed people use their self-knowledge and awareness of the world around them to generate hypotheses of social interactions that either were reinforced when the interaction occurred or proven wrong. This requires additional cognitive processes to understand and accommodate the new information.
Social Intelligence Theories
We’ve just looked at the cognitive view of personality and social intelligence, but what other theoretical views are there?The psychometric view goes back to the beginning of social intelligence research with the work of E.
L. Thorndike. He placed a person’s intelligence into three categories:
- Abstract, or handling ideas
- Mechanical, or handling physical objects and the body
- Social, or handling interpersonal interaction
The psychometric view posits social intelligence as a completely separate form of intelligence from the other two and defines it as a combination of skills used when interacting with people. While this definition aligns with most social intelligence theory, it does not attempt to study the cognitive mechanisms underlying the acquisition or manifestation of these skills.
Instead, these theorists attempted to devise means to measure social intelligence, a difficult task.The intelligence model avoids the inherent problems of quantifying social intelligence or the difficulty in identifying specific cognitive mechanisms by focusing on the different aspects and qualities that compose social intelligence. Instead, social intelligence is classified into the categories of declarative knowledge, which are abstract concepts and memories, and procedural knowledge, which is the how-to knowledge of performing tasks.The intelligence model further specifies two types of declarative knowledge: Semantic memory includes general knowledge of the world, and episodic memory is our memories of our life experiences. Likewise, procedural memory breaks down into cognitive skills (how we think) and motor skills (how we move). In this way, our social intelligence becomes a combination of what we know about the world, our memories of past interactions, our thought processes for deciphering social situations, and our motor skills, which determine personal space boundaries.
Let’s review. Social intelligence is how we navigate interaction with others. It involves every aspect of interpersonal communication, social rules, the impressions we make, and our ability to read a person’s motivation.Those ascribing to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences or Karl Albrecht’s six dimensions of intelligence, known as A.
K., see social intelligence as one aspect of a person, separate from personality. The cognitive view of social intelligence and personality sees social intelligence as the outward, visible manifestation of personality.The psychometric model, the view espoused by the founder of social intelligence research, E.L. Thorndike, attempts to measure social intelligence quantitatively.
Finally, the intelligence model bypasses the need to identify different cognitive processes or quantify social intelligence by simply describing the structure of social intelligence components.