In this lesson, we will learn about the function of subordinate clauses, also known as dependent clauses, and examine a variety of examples in order to understand their role in our writing.
Definition of Subordinate Clause
We all know at least one person who is way too needy. Some might use the word, ‘clingy.’ They cannot seem to go anywhere, make a decision or even get dressed without another person there to hold their hand along the way. The word ‘dependent’ comes to mind. Meaning, they are completely dependent on another person to function. Well, believe it or not, this is very similar to a subordinate clause.A subordinate clause, also called a dependent clause, cannot stand alone in a sentence because it is an incomplete thought and must have that independent clause by its side to function properly.
A clause is just another word for a group of words containing one subject and one verb. There are two types of clauses: independent and subordinate. Independent clauses, unlike subordinate ones, are complete because they make sense on their own.
Subordinate clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions or relative pronouns, which both play a key role in making the clause subordinate.Let’s examine some examples to understand these clauses more clearly.
Examples of Independent ; Dependent Clauses
‘We finished cleaning our apartment.’
- ‘We’ is the subject.
- ‘Finished’ is the verb.
As you can see, this clause is independent because it has a subject and a verb, and it can stand alone as a complete thought.’After we returned from my mother’s house’
- ‘After’ is the subordinating conjunction.
- ‘We’ is the subject.
- ‘Returned’ is the verb.
- ‘We’ is the subject.
This subordinate clause is incomplete and would be considered a fragment if it appeared alone. It needs an independent clause by its side, so it can make sense and be considered one complete thought.
Otherwise, we are left wondering, ‘so what happened after you returned from your mother’s house? Tell me more!’When you put them together though. . .’We finished cleaning our apartment + after we returned from my mother’s house.’Voila!! We have a complete sentence! This is called a complex sentence because it contains at least one independent and one subordinate clause.
Subordinating Conjunctions & Relative Pronouns
Subordinate clauses would actually be independent were it not for the subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun, because they do have a subject and a verb.For example, in the clause, ‘after we returned from my mother’s house,’ if we remove the subordinating conjunction, ‘after,’ we are left with ‘we returned from my mother’s house,’ which is an independent clause or a complete sentence because it has a subject (we) and a verb (returned) and states clear, complete information.Subordinating conjunctions function like conjunctions because they do help join the subordinate clause to the independent clause. They also help add key information like when or why something is happening.
Relative pronouns are not conjunctions but act like other pronouns and take the place of a person, place or thing.Some subordinating conjunctions are: after, as, although, while, when, where, whenever, whether, until, unless, because, before, if, since.Relative Pronouns are: who, which, when, where, what, whose.
For the following examples, notice that each subordinate clause has at least one independent clause by its side, so it includes all of the important details needed in order to make sense. Also, each subordinate clause begins with either a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun. Let’s start with subordinate clauses that begin with subordinating conjunctions.’When you get a chance, can you pick up more milk?”When you get a chance’ is the subordinate clause, and ‘when’ is the subordinating conjunction.’We missed the opening act because we were late.”Because we were late’ is the subordinate clause. ‘Because’ is the subordinating conjunction.
‘Since you are driving by her house, can you pick up Renee?”Since you are driving by her house’ is the subordinate clause. ‘Since’ is the subordinating conjunction.Now let’s look at some subordinate clauses that begin with relative pronouns.’I will marry the boy who steals my heart.”Who steals my heart’ is the subordinate clause, and ‘who’ is the relative pronoun.’For our project, we used a PowerPoint, which was my idea.
”Which was my idea’ is the subordinate clause, and ‘which’ is the relative pronoun.’I know that you are the man for me.”That you are the man for me’ is the subordinate clause, and ‘that’ is the relative pronoun.
To wrap up, subordinate clauses are basically incomplete sentences that begin with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun. They are added to independent clauses to provide more information. We need them to improve our writing, add variety to our sentence structure and include necessary information. Our writing would be very boring if every sentence was the same: ‘We went to the movies. We were bored.’ Subordinate clauses let us see the relation between different parts of the sentence and prevents our writing from sounding repetitive: ‘We went to the movies because we were bored.’
Subordinate Clause Definition & Vocabulary
- Subordinate clause: Also known as a dependent clause, it is an incomplete thought that cannot stand alone as a sentence.
- Clause: A group of words containing one subject and a verb.
- Complex Sentence: Contains one independent and one subordinate clause.
- Subordinating conjunctions: A conjunction that joins the subordinate clause to the independent clause.
- Relative pronouns: Words that act like other pronouns and take place of a person, place or thing.
At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
- Explain what subordinate clauses are
- Demonstrate your ability to use them through examples