We often think about art as a visual experience, but it’s also an intellectual one and, to some people, that’s really the part that matters. Explore the basic ideas behind conceptual art and test your understanding with a brief quiz.
What Is Conceptual Art?
Hmmm… this is art, right? I’m not quite sure I like how this looks.
Good thing the appearance doesn’t really matter! That’s right, even though this is visual art, the appearance isn’t that important. Why? Because this is conceptual art, meaning that the idea or concept behind the art is more important than the finished product. The real art, the real purpose, is to explore intellectual ideas through the act of artistic creation, but once you’ve done that, the meaning of the art is achieved, regardless of the appearance.
Think that’s cool? Well, that’s the concept.
The ideas behind conceptual art, at least in the modern sense, date back to the early 20th century. Around World War I, abstract art was really becoming popular, and people around the world were starting to devote more time to answering this question: what is art? And that’s where we find this guy, Marcel Duchamp, a French (and later) American painter and sculptor who was tired of the then-prominent idea that art should be focused almost exclusively on its visual qualities. So, Duchamp decided that art needed to be more conceptual, more about the meaning than anything else.
And he made this; this is the Fountain, created in 1917.
It’s a urinal, flipped on its side and inscribed with the words ‘R. Mutt 1917’. Seriously. Duchamp often made pieces like this, which he called readymades because they were built with premade parts. Duchamp went to a store, bought an item, and altered it just slightly enough to make it art. See what he’s doing here? He’s removing the artist’s control over the visual elements, thus placing the entire value of the art on its meaning. I’ll let you think about what meaning may have been intended by labeling a urinal as fine art.
Duchamp was not the only artist to do this, although he was a pioneering figure in this idea. There was actually an entire movement dedicated to this.
It was called Dada, and was characterized by conceptual art that embraced an anarchic sense of the absurd. Here’s a great example; this is Kurt Schwitters, a German artist of the early 20th century, and this is his Merz 460, a collage created in 1921. Like Duchamp, Shwitters relied on found, or premade objects, and then arranged them into art.
In this case, it was pieces of trash and scraps of discarded paper, made into a collage. While Schwitters did arrange these pieces in an aesthetic way, again, it’s not the final product that is the point.
By using scraps of paper that he happened to find, Schwitters embodied the Dada reliance on chance, freedom, and anarchy to challenge the illusion of control.
The works of early 20th-century modern artists helped set the foundations for conceptual art. However, the first movement to completely embrace conceptual art was conceptualism in the 1960s. That’s where the term ‘conceptual art’ was truly coined and defined and it’s largely thanks to this guy, American artist Sol LeWitt. LeWitt’s Sentences on Conceptual Art were the first academic essays to really define the goal and methods of conceptual art as being completely about the idea or concept, not the visual product.In fact, LeWitt commonly did not ‘make’ his art at all. He planned it, he designed it, he plotted out every aspect of it, and then hired someone else to carry it out.
‘The idea becomes a machine that makes the art,’ he wrote. The most famous examples of this are his wall drawings, repetitions of geometric shapes broken into basic components. LeWitt planned and designed these wall-sized murals, and then often hired drafting teams to install them.
What mattered was the concept, the plan, the idea. The rest could be taken over by someone else.
LeWitt’s process became very common. Pop artist Andy Warhol even called his own studio ‘The Factory’ because his assistants made all of his art on industrial machines. One of the biggest names in conceptual art during this period was Robert Smithson, American landscape artist and photographer.
Smithson was fascinated by the idea of the picturesque landscape, which artistically is pretty much the balance of aesthetic beauty in nature. Smithson decided to focus on human interaction with the landscape.An example of this, called Spiral Jetty, is an earth mound created as a spiral in the Great Salt Lake of Utah. This took some 6,500 tons of material to create, so obviously Smithson didn’t do it himself. He just designed it and photographed it.
The idea behind this project was to explore the relationship between art and its environment.
Smithson didn’t want to see art confined to galleries. His ‘sited work,’ as these pieces were called, explored the meaning of art in a natural space. This gets even more conceptual when you ask the question of how this art changes once you take a picture of it, and that picture is displayed in a gallery, thus becoming ‘non-sited work.’ These concepts are the point of conceptual art – but let’s not deny it, the finished product is still pretty cool.
Sometimes art is all about the visual: and sometimes, it’s not.
Conceptual art is based on the philosophy that the idea or concept behind the art is more important than the finished product. This basic idea really dates back to the early 20th century when Marcel Duchamp started using premade objects to create works of art. Soon the entire Dada movement embraced this, often using premade or found objects to communicate ideas of anarchy, absurdity, and the illusion of control.Conceptual art as a true movement, however, didn’t emerge until the 1960s, when American artist Sol LeWitt published a series of essays defining the concept as being more important than the visual product.
LeWitt and others often did not ‘make’ their art at all. They designed and planned it, and then let someone else make the final product, because what mattered was the idea, the concept.Robert Smithson was another famous artist to embrace this idea, as shown through his massive works of earth mounds that explored the relationship between art and physical space.
So with this sort of art, you really don’t need to appreciate all of the visual elements – you just need to get the concept.
Conceptual Artists ; Their Works
|Conceptual art||the idea or concept behind the art is more important than the finished product|
|Marcel Duchamp||French (and later) American painter and sculptor|
|Fountain||a urinal that is flipped on its side and inscribed with the words ‘R. Mutt 1917’ by DuChamp|
|Dada||characterized by conceptual art that embraced an anarchic sense of the absurd|
|Kurt Schwitters||a German artist of the early 20th century|
|Merz 460||a collage created by Schwitters in 1921 that relied on found, or premade, objects that were then arranged into art|
|Conceptualism||art movement that began in the 1960s|
|Sol LeWitt||wrote Sentences on Conceptual Art, the first academic essays to really define the goal and methods of conceptual art|
|Wall drawings||LeWitt’s repetitions of geometric shapes broken into basic components|
|Andy Warhol||American pop artist who ran ‘The Factory’|
|Robert Smithson||American landscape artist and photographer|
|Picturesque landscape||refers to the balance of aesthetic beauty in nature|
|Spiral Jetty||an earth mound created by Smithson as a spiral in the Great Salt Lake of Utah|
When this video ends and you’ve studied the transcript, you’ll have improved upon your ability to:
- Write the definition of and discuss the origins of conceptual art
- Recognize many of the important artists of this movement
- Remember the works produced by these artists