While in the acid, making water. The

While handling sodium hydroxide can be dangerous, knowledge of sodium hydroxide can be enriching.

Learn what sodium hydroxide is, its formula and about some chemical reactions involving sodium hydroxide in this lesson.

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What is Sodium Hydroxide?

Sodium hydroxide is a powerful chemical with many aliases: NaOH, lye and caustic soda. Sodium hydroxide is often the active agent in cleaning solutions, but it is also used in the manufacturing of products like textiles, cellophane, and paper. This chemical can be very dangerous and can severely damage materials.

Humans should avoid contact with sodium hydroxide without protection because it can cause severe burns to the skin and serious tissue damage if gotten in the eyes or inhaled.Sodium hydroxide is represented by the chemical formula NaOH. It is an ionic compound because it is made of a metal ion, sodium (Na+) that is attracted to a nonmetal ion, hydroxide (OH-). When it is a solid, it is white and it has a high melting point of 604.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Though it has a high melting point, sodium hydroxide dissolves in water extremely well. When dissolved in water it is clear.

Sodium hydroxide is also a strong base, which is a compound that splits apart in water to make many hydroxide (OH-) ions. When dissolved in water, sodium hydroxide has a very high pH and feels very slippery. Generally, sodium hydroxide is most corrosive when it is dissolved in water.

Reactions Involving Sodium Hydroxide

Dissolving In Water

In water, sodium hydroxide breaks apart completely to yield one sodium ion and one hydroxide ion. This process is represented by the equation seen here. While this process is not a chemical reaction, it is still a very important property of sodium hydroxide.

Reactions With Acids

Sodium hydroxide will react with acids to produce a water and an ionic compound. In this type of reaction, the hydroxide from sodium hydroxide reacts with the hydrogen ion in the acid, making water. The rest of the acid combines with the sodium ion from sodium hydroxide to make an ionic compound. The reaction between sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid can be seen here, as well as a reaction showing how sodium hydroxide reacts with acids in general.

Reactions With Dissolved Metals

Sodium hydroxide will react with certain dissolved metals to make a solid. This type of reaction is very useful if the dissolved metals are toxic or need to be removed from the solution. Solid chemicals can be filtered out of a solution a number of different ways.

In this reaction, dissolved copper reacts with sodium hydroxide to make solid copper(II)hydroxide and sodium ions. The blue colored copper(II) hydroxide can then be removed from the solution.

sodium hydroxide and copper

Reactions With Nonmetal Oxides

Sometimes pollutants like sulfur dioxide or carbon dioxide need to be removed from a solution or environment. Sodium hydroxide can be used to react with nonmetal oxides like these. A nonmetal oxide is a compound that contains a nonmetal like carbon or sulfur bonded with oxygen.

In these reactions, sodium hydroxide will react with the nonmetal oxide to produce an ionic compound and water. The reaction between carbon dioxide and sodium hydroxide is shown in this chemical reaction formula.

sodium carbonate and carbon dioxide

Lesson Summary

Let’s review! Sodium hydroxide is a corrosive chemical sometimes known as lye or caustic soda. It’s chemical formula is NaOH. It is an ionic compound, because it is made of a metal ion, sodium (Na+), that is attracted to a nonmental ion, hydroxide (OH-).

When it is a solid it is white and it has a high melting point of 604.4F. Though it has a high melting point, sodium hydroxide dissolves in water extremely well. When dissolved in water it is clear. In solid form, sodium hydroxide is white and has a very high melting point.

Sodium hydroxide is a strong base that can be dissolved in water. When dissolved in water, sodium hydroxide solutions have high Ph values and can seriously corrode or damage materials. Sodium hydroxide is capable of many different kinds of chemical reactions.

Dissolving in Water

In water, sodium hydroxide breaks apart completely to yield one sodium ion and one hydroxide ion.

While this process is not a chemical reaction, it is still a very important property of sodium hydroxide.

Reactions with Acids

Sodium hydroxide will react with acids to produce a water and ionic compound. The hydroxide from sodium hydroxide reacts with the hydrogen ion in the acid, making water. The rest of the acid combines with the sodium ion from sodium hydroxide to make an ionic compound.

Reactions with Dissolved Metals

Sodium hydroxide will react with certain dissolved metals to make a solid, which is useful if the dissolved metals are toxic or need to be removed from the solution. Solid chemicals can be filtered out of a solution a number of different ways.

Reactions with Nonmetal Oxides

Sometimes pollutants like sulfur dioxide or carbon dioxide need to be removed from a solution or environment. Sodium hydroxide can be used to react with a nonmetal oxide, which is a compound that contains a nonmetal like carbon or sulfur bonded with oxygen.

Sodium hydroxide reacts with the nonmetal oxide to produce an ionic compound and water.

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